What follows below is the research I conducted into my article on the rise of the machines

Drill down on the aspect of the gaming culture and the desensitising of adults as well as children

My story is about how technology is changing human nature, its not just about gaming culture although that is an important and driving factor in this story. It is more about how technology started out as language moved to books and has now progressed to film and then how film progressed and how it has gotten shorter and snappier with the quick cuts of MTV to now the 90 second Instagram clips


The rise of the machines and the death of the spoken word. Games like red dead redemption are turning the youth into a frankenstein and desensitising them to a kill or be killed culture.

It makes me think of a question that i was asked by someone why do i read? I never took the time to break it down into its component parts.

Spoken word why do you read brain training

So when you read you you decipher symbols, letters which are in sentences which describe ideas. Sentences then in turn develop concepts, they flesh them out and unpack complex ideas. Good writing describes concepts and great writing makes it accessible to a wider audience. It packages it in such a way that you reach people.

They confront people about uncomfortable parts of their personalities and the psychology behind them. This can allow for a catharsis and a healing and the development of a connection which is what can be so sorely missed in today’s society.

Social media smartphones

Social media also has contributed to this and the advent of the smartphone has brought us closer to to the technology than ever before. The concept of a keyboard warrior has allowed, even in the non anonymous form. Has allowed for people to be less compassionate and more easily offended. Saying things that you would never say in person and allowing people to take things up the wrong way in a text form where so much tone and intonation gets lost in the translation.

This has lead to the polarisation of opinion and the death of nuance

Machines as people

Another aspect of this piece would be to treat technology as a life form, this was done in the animatrix where they tracked and traced the technology i heard someone speak about it like our phones will be looked on as our slaves in the future by future sentient computers and they will look down upon the humans who had theses primitive forms of technology as slaves. How far could that be taken what constitutes a technology. Could words and books be considered a technology

Here I have included a rough first draft highlighted in red for clarity i received some valuable feedback from Orlagh here allowing me to concentrate on getting an Irish voice and bring and Irish context to the piece. She also rightly pointed out that while that stats and the chart did paint a good picture it was clunky and very number heavy and so very hard for the reader to digest comfortable as a piece of information.


1st draft of the rise of the machines investigative piece

Donal Carroll

Explanation of the below

I Have attempted to follow the template that we were given in the individual project, these are highlighted in colour. They give structure and allow me to have a track to run on, they will however not be present in the final piece. Also I have included some videos to be added in my media rich blog that I cannot here but they do a great job of drawing the reader in and explaining some of the concepts that I am covering. I have bolded and underlined the paragraph headings which are open to change. I have yet to get some feedback from the primary sources but I do have a promising lead scheduled for a call on monday. I also feel as my story develops I will more pertinent questions to be able to ask of my primary sources. I initially started out with a title of the rise of the machines and the death of the spoken word but upon researching the topic. This focus began to feel like i was rearranging the deckchairs on the titanic with the broader more pressing issue being the rise of the machines. It may be interesting to look into the software more and how that intersects with culture through social media and how we now communicate with memes emoji’s and the evolution of text language. Also I would look to give some hope and coping mechanisms and strategies to unplug but I Worry that this may be the wrong advice. I am as yet undecided on whether on not the future will be a utopia or a dystopia.

Topic sentence states the main idea – a general statement

Where we are Currently – Setting the scene

It is the year 2019 and the rise of the machines is upon us, But what does that mean? Well simply put machines are about to get so smart they start to take over. It can be broken down in to an economic singularity and a technological singularity.

The word singularity was first coined by Vernor Vinge, the science fiction author, in 1983. “We will soon create intelligences greater than our own,” he wrote. “When this happens, human history will have reached a kind of singularity, an intellectual transition as impenetrable as the knotted space-time at the center of a black hole, and the world will pass far beyond our understanding.” Some people are calling this the 4th industrial revolution which we will discuss this later.

The economic singularity refers to the fact that machines have in the past and will continue to in the future more and more start to take over the roles that humans currently occupy. This may lead to a resurgence in the luddites. In today’s parlance it refers to a person who is opposed to new technology or ways of working. Historically it dates back to 1811 when bands of english textile workers destroyed machinery, because they believed it was threatening their jobs.

It’s already upon us really, and we can look to automation’s already clear and present in our supermarkets as well as our fast food stores, Tesco and Mcdonalds are prime examples. The automotive industry is months away from rolling out driver-less vehicles known as “Autos” across the board. With Google backed Waymo leading the charge. Way back in October they announced that their autonomous vehicles clocked up an impressive 10 million miles on public roads in the US, that’s up from 8 million back in July of 2018. A great explanation for this can be found at

Explanation or definition (clarifies any difficult or unclear terms in the topic sentence

Exponential Growth – Defining Terms

In order to give this some context its important to understand the concept of exponential growth. Which was first observed by Gordon Moore (founder of Intel) in 1965. Simply put it states that the processing speeds, or overall processing power of computers will double every 2 years. This can be tricky to get your head around so here is an analogy to help explain and contextualise.  

So let’s say you can make Wembley stadium waterproof, and you are going to add a drop of water to the stadium every minute. How long do you think it would take for the stadium to fill up? Most people would say days months or years, when in actual fact due to the profound nature of exponential growth it would be full in just 49 minutes. What makes this so insidious is that after 45 minutes it would only start to cover the people in the first row of seats. So much in the same way as the old myth of the frog in a boiling pot of water by the time you realise you have a problem it is already too late.


If you were to walk outside your door 30 steps you would get 30 meters

You are always really at the beginning because your net step will be nothing compared to the previous one. Some people say moore’s law is dead but this is a very narrow view of things and does not take into account the ability for moore’s law to be applied to software. To give it some perspective if moore’s law continues for the next ten years it will mean that computers today will be 128 time more powerful than the ones we have today, but in 20 years time they will be 8000 times more powerful, and in 30 years time they will be 1 million times more powerful. This is why it’s so difficult to get our heads around what is actually possible with this type of exponential growth paradigm.

It is also valuable to make ourselves familiar with a few other terms such as a programme. Which is a very specific step by step instruction for a computer to do a task. Iit is absolutely precise. Also the term algorithm is similar to, but different from programme. It’s more like a recipe. Originating from a persian mathematician called al-Khwarizmi, It refers to a well defined procedure that allows a computer to solve a problem. As is often the case It can be fruitful to look at it in another way. As a set of unambiguous instructions, the term unambiguous shows that there is no room for individual interpretation. You basically set a goal and the machine actually learns how to achieve the goal that its been set, just like a recipe.

Back propagation landmark moment jeff hinton imagenet competition breakthrough an announcement  machine learning had been successfully applied.

In Traditionally machine learning you have a theory and you apply some data to it. With modern machine learning you have a ocean of data to which you apply the algorithm and the machine learning will find the solution. This is akin to pattern recognition which is how our human brains.

Programme def a set of related measures or activities with a particular long-term aim.

provide (a computer or other machine) with coded instructions for the automatic performance of a task.

Algorithm def An algorithm is a well-defined procedure that allows a computer to solve a problem. Another way to describe an algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions. … In fact, it is difficult to think of a task performed by your computer that does not use algorithms

Comment – explain what the evidence means and how it relates to your point Supports or develops the evidence with analysis of further info e.g opposing or contrasting points to broaden or develops the discussion. If appropriate, mention other evidence (examples/studies/experiments/interpretations) to widen the discussion.

Meaning and Implications for society and the future

What does all this mean well in short, in the very near future we will see the automation of a number of different industries. From the food industry to the transport, even the accounting, legal and recruitment industries are not safe. With intelligent algorithms designed to work harder for longer and be more accurate avoiding such things as alert fatigue. Even the construction industry is not safe as evidenced with the bricklaying robot below. even journalism is not safe with websites such as where one is able to get a robot to write an article for them, all that is required is the search terms and it will do the rest.

According to the MIT Technology Review robots could potentially take over more than 800 million jobs in the next 13 years as evidenced in the chart below.

Predicted Jobs Automation Will Create and Destroy

When Where Jobs


Jobs Created Predictor
2016 worldwide 900,000 to 1,500,000 Metra Martech
2018 US jobs 13,852,530* 3,078,340* Forrester
2020 worldwide 1,000,000-2,000,000 Metra Martech
2020 worldwide 1,800,000 2,300,000 Gartner
2020 sampling of 15 countries 7,100,000 2,000,000 World Economic Forum (WEF)
2021 worldwide 1,900,000-3,500,000 The International Federation of Robotics
2021 US jobs 9,108,900* Forrester
2022 worldwide 1,000,000,000 Thomas Frey
2025 US jobs 24,186,240* 13,604,760* Forrester
2025 US jobs 3,400,000 ScienceAlert
2027 US jobs 24,700,000 14,900,000 Forrester
2030 worldwide 2,000,000,000 Thomas Frey
2030 worldwide 400,000,000-800,000,000 555,000,000-890,000,000 McKinsey
2030 US jobs 58,164,320* PWC
2035 US jobs 80,000,000 Bank of England
2035 UK jobs 15,000,000 Bank of England
No Date US jobs 13,594,320* OECD
No Date UK jobs 13,700,000 IPPR

Concluding sentence –

  • States the implications or consequences of the paragraph
  • shows the development of the argument
  • Links back to the topic sentence
  • links forward to the main idea of the next paragraph.

Where do we go from here- Some workable solutions

What does all this mean, and how does this change the price of eggs? Well in the short term it means a massive loss of jobs as this economic revolution takes place. This so called 4th industrial revolution is known as the digital revolution.

(The following videos will be included in the final media rich blog)

The implications of this 4th industrial revolution will mean large scale job loss for many. On the flip side of that coin there will be massive savings, this in turn brings up the question of what to done with all of these unemployed people?

Universal Basic Income is one of the solutions being forwarded by many experts. Basically it is a periodic cash payment delivered to all on an individual basis, without means test or work requirement.

  • Unconditional: A Basic Income would vary with age, but with no other conditions, so everyone of the same age would receive the same Basic Income, whatever their gender, employment status, family structure, contribution to society, housing costs, or anything else.
  • Automatic: Someone’s Basic Income would be paid weekly or monthly, automatically, into a bank account or similar.
  • Non-withdraw-able: Basic Incomes would not be means-tested. Whether someone’s earnings increase, decrease, or stay the same, their Basic Income will not change.
  • Individual: Basic Incomes would be paid on an individual basis, and not on the basis of a couple or household.
  • As a right: Everybody legally resident would receive a Basic Income, subject to a minimum period of legal residency, and continuing residency for most of the year.

There are however a number of problems with UBI, the B part for a start. What constitutes basic income, and will people be happy with just a basic income. moreover in order to pay for this the taxes on the right will need to increase. this section of society having the financial freedom as well as insights to hide or evade high tax areas.

Elon Musk commented thusly on UBI “There is a pretty good chance we end up with a universal basic income, or something like that, due to automation,” Musk went on to say . “Yeah, I am not sure what else one would do. I think that is what would happen.”

Similarly the great and powerful Mark Zuckerburg was typically frank when he observed “Let’s face it: There is something wrong with our system when I can leave [Harvard] and make billions of dollars in 10 years, while millions of students can’t afford to pay off their loans, let alone start a business,” Zuckerberg said in his May 2017 commencement address at his alma mater. “Now it’s our time to define a new social contract for our generation. We should explore ideas like universal basic income to give everyone a cushion to try new things.”


The different types of technology could be considered different races in the machine world

technological Systems/ 7 Types of Technology

  • Construction Technology. Using systems and processes to put structures on the sites where they will be used.
  • Communication & Information Technology. Developing and using devices and. …
  • Medical Technology. …
  • Transportation Technology. …
  • Energy & Power Technology. …
  • Agricultural Related Bio-Technologies. …
  • Technology. …

Needless to say it is not my intention to follow suit. Instead I’d like to shift my focus onto what I find to be a more pressing and troubling development; that being the sacrifice of any sort of nuanced, objective truth for a more convenient and compelling narrative of half truths and blatant lies.

What we have seen from both sides is a rampant upswell in emotionality that has effectively undercut the prospects of logical and useful political discourse. Of course this has been brewing for some time, but it has only very recently boiled over to the point of unbearably toxic identity politics

Quite humorously, we’ve seen self ascribed torch bearers of their mutually disrespected ideologies call for unity without recognising the inconvenient fact that the onus is them to facilitate such a thing. Neither side seems to realise culpability they share for this demographic schism, and neither side seems to accept the responsibility needed to amend it. Instead, all we have been left with is the gloomy consolation of hyper-patriotic gloating from the right, and vitriolic bitterness and demagoguery from the left.

If it is not clear that widespread political hostility can only perpetuate itself, it should be. And if you don’t think it could get any worse, it can. These problems won’t go away until we make some genuine attempt to fix them. It is only natural that we do not agree on every issue, but we cannot continue to be emotionally defensive of our own views to the extent that it effectively negates rational, productive conversation. All human progress relies on the unlikely prospect of effective conversation. This has always been the case. It is about as inconvenient a truth as you will find in nature, but hopefully it’s one we can all agree on. After all, it certainly wouldn’t be a bad place to start.

The impact that video has on our ability to read, watching video is a very passive activity when contrasted with reading because it gives you all the pictures automatically and doesn’t ask you to do any of the legwork to create the image. Books also have an ability to pause and drill down on specific parts like some of my favourite authors like that of charles dickens.

The drop in our attention spans and how scrolling has meant that we only have attention for a couple of minutes

Kate Edwards, president of the International Game Developers Association, gives the appropriate answer, “On the issue of violence, I think most game designers are cognizant of the role that violent actions serve in their game’s stories, similar to how a film’s scriptwriter or a book’s author leverages such acts to serve in stories they wish to tell.”

As Squire mentions, video games have clear, meaningful goals, multiple goal structures, scoring system, adjustable difficulty levels, random element of surprise, and an appealing fantasy metaphor, all things a good education system should have.

While yes, arguments can still be made for video games and their connection to violence, there can conversely be arguments made for video games and their beneficial, positive, effect on our world today, the world has been molded and shaped today by the characters we grow to love and adore, and hopefully, as video games continue to make leaps into a new future, so shall we.

The spread of the medium, from Pong in 1972 to Twitter (yes Twitter) today, has been one of quiet contagion.

what Brooker showed was that they have done so without anyone’s permission.  

Gartner, an analyst firm, speculates there will be more than 26 billion connected devices by 2020. Imagine a future where your car warns you of heavy traffic or your alarm clock notifies you about your coffee brewing itself in the kitchen. Imagine living in a smart home in a smart city.

The term came from the Greek word techne which means art and craft. It was first used to describe applied arts but now it is used to describe the advancement and changes around us.

Then, around 1835, Samuel Morse invented the telegraph, setting the stage for the greatest period of technological development in history that, in a relatively short time, has transformed our lives so dramatically. Think about it. The telegraph was a clear precursor to the Internet and the telegram was an early iteration of email.

Alexander Graham Bell’s patent of the telephone in 1876 (many have laid claim to having invented it) enabled humans to converse directly over great distances as if they werThe facsimile followed closely in the wake of the telephone, paving  the way for the immediate transmission of something other than voice. For the first time, documents could be shared at a rate far faster than through the mail (what we now quaintly refer to as ‘snail mail’). e in the same room.

Mobile phone technology emerged for commercial use with the car phone around 1979 and progressively evolved to the present where mobile phones are now considered an indispensable part of our lives.

In 1994, the Internet was introduced to the public (it had actually been around since the 1960s), and it has likely been the single greatest leap forward in communication technology, enabling the instantaneous transmission of data, documents, still and moving images, and voice. It has created a veritable torrent of technology that has given us the Web, email, text messaging, and an array of applications, for example, MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, and Skype, that have dramatically altered the way we connect.

My concern is not in the technology itself; we cannot and should not try to slow or halt the inexorable march of progress. My interest is in our relationship with that technology and my concern is in how technology will affect us. Will we be passive recipients — dare I say victims? — of technology who allow it to change our lives for better or worse without consideration? Or can we be masters of our technology and deliberately harness its tremendous value while minimizing its risks?

The answer to these questions will depend not only on the technology itself that is developed, but also on our exploration of how new technology will influence our lives. Could anyone have predicted how the latest communication technology would change our lives? Maybe not, but I think it would be worth a try. Good questions to ask include:

  1. What are our goals for this technology?
  2. How will it influence how we interact with others?
  3. How will it affect how we use our time?
  4. What benefit will it bring to us?
  5. What costs might arise from its use?
  6. How can developers prepare us to best use this technology?


Potential technology expert interview

Professor David FitzPatrick, dean of engineering at UCD, is set to become the first president of Technological University Dublin.


Dr Joseph Ryan, who is the head of the Technological Higher Education Association (THEA), said he was delighted with the outcome.


President of Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art Design and Technology (IADT), Dr Annie Doona, takes over as Chairperson of the Board of the Technological Higher Education Association (THEA) on 1 January 2


Douglas rushkoff

“The mind is not a vessel to be filled but a fire to be kindled” – Plutarch 46-120AD.

Despite an increase in IQ, basic reading and writing skills have deteriorated hugely. How they are mentally agile but culturally ignorant.


Edited and prepared by Oscar Michel, Masters in Journalism, DCU In episode 49 of the Innovation show we talk to Author, lecturer and Futurist in Residence at the Tech Foresight Practice at Imperial College, Richard Watson.


A top industry futurist has said that Ireland Inc and third level colleges here are “nowhere near ready” to cope with the digital revolution of business.

George Muir has spoken at conferences across Europe, Australia and the US on the future of the workplace, artificial intelligence (AI) ethics and how AI will impact our professional lives in the future.

Based in Sweden and a former futurist for IKEA, the Scottish guru spent time advising global software firm – and IDA client company – LiveTiles when they set up their new innovation centre in Sligo last year.

“AI and robotics by 2025 will take over the tasks that you do. As a human being, what are you going to be doing?,” he told

“We need to be able to do other things; the native, traditional jobs will disappear: bank tellers, accountants, fast food workers, factory workers, construction workers, and farmers to name just a few.”

According to Muir, the Irish education system needs “to wake up fast” and adapt its approach to provide the right kind of skillsets to enable the future workforce to deal with the oncoming fifth revolution.

“They need to learn to change their teaching practices to enable students here to think differently and properly for this new world and get them to collaborate on a different and advanced level,” he told

“The educational curriculum is based for the jobs in the 50s, 60s, 70s. In five years time, when you need to work in a completely different way you need have skillsets like collaboration and innovation; universities and schools in Ireland are not thinking in that way whatsoever. “

Muir cites Finland as an example case where schools use open learning, no desks or classrooms, with 50-70 students of all ages in the one room all learning and collaborating together.


What remains consistent at the moment is all emphasis on visual. A photo (or video) is much more digestible than a one thousand word blog post.


The long-held belief that automation will overwhelm in the various sectors, and bring with it robots that will replace the need for human employees is still prevalent.

But the tide is turning and the way forward is not something that companies and employees – at whatever level – should shy away from.

And the future is expected to witness the emergence of new roles including Professional Rebel, AI Artist, Creativity Therapist and Robotic Rights Activist.

“Don’t approach the future with fear, welcome AI. It enables people to then go on and have the day job which can only be done by people. All of the soft skills that can’t be outsourced to robots.

“Even my role, the job of a futurist – that’s a new skillset. We are about to break down paradigms, but it always takes 20-30 years to do so.”


A new Red C survey has found that 39% of adults in Ireland are concerned robots will take their jobs.  The survey of 1,000 adults was conducted by Red C on behalf of Lero, the Science Foundation Ireland-funded software research centre. It found that 39% of respondents were worried that robots or artificial intelligence will take over their work.

Robots are already helping in classrooms and hospitals around the world and it is clear that our understanding of robotics needs to be explored further.

In response to this challenge, the Institute of Technology, Sligo is exploring how to educate the care, education and health workers of the future in how they might work with robotic colleagues. This will be the focus of an ambitious pan-European research and teaching project conducted by several universities and other partners across the continent, led by academics from the Institute.

Dr John Pender, President Dr. Brendan McCormack and Dr. Perry Share of IT Sligo with a robotic seal which helps sufferers of dementia reduce stress.  


With that purpose in mind, bringing technologists together with those who reside at the nexus of technology and humanity, for example, experts from psychology, philosophy, and sociology, would be invaluable in answering these questions. These are the types of people i am looking for.


Is technology making is dummer?

Statistical backup for the rise of the machines in ireland


Marginally more females than males used the internet with the three months prior to interview – 83% compared with 82% of males. This follows the same trend as in previous years


Paul Saffo, a Silicon-Valley-based technological forecaster said: “At the end of the day, the two of the three highest human desires are the desire to be useful, and the desire to share stories. We have been doing both since our distant ancestors sat around a savanna camp fire sharing their days and their dreams. Now, thanks to digital media, the circle around the campfire has grown to encompass (if we wish) all of humanity.”


Then we asked:

Please elaborate on your response below considering these questions: Why do you think people’s well-being will be affected this way? What harms or improvements are likely to occur?

Some 47% selected that individuals’ overall well-being will be more helped than harmed, while 32% said well-being will be more harmed than helped, and 21% said there will not be much change in people’s well-being from the status quo. We also asked respondents to share brief personal anecdotes about how digital life has changed in regard to their own or their family’s or friends’ well-being. Those answers will be covered in a future report.

While about a third of the respondents expect that many individuals’ well-being will be harmed, the overwhelming majority of these experts assume that – no matter what the future may bring – people’s uses of and immersion in digital tools will continue to expand in influence and impact.


Micah Altman, director of research and head scientist for the program on information science at MIT; Diana L. Ascher, co-founder of the Information Ethics & Equity Institute; Rob Atkinson, president of the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation; Richard Bennett, a creator of the WiFi MAC protocol and modern Ethernet; Ed Black, president and CEO of the Computer & Communications Industry Association; Nathaniel Borenstein, chief scientist at Mimecast; Ildeu Borges, director of regulatory affairs for SindiTelebrasil; Stowe Boyd, futurist, publisher and editor-in-chief of Work Futures; Nicholas Carr, author of “Utopia is Creepy” and “The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains”; Jamais Cascio, distinguished fellow at the Institute for the Future; Barry Chudakov, founder and principal at Sertain Research and StreamFuzion Corp.; Narelle Clark, deputy CEO of the Australian Communications Consumer Action Network; Maureen Cooney, head of privacy at Sprint; Judith Donath, Harvard University’s Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society; Stephen Downes, researcher at the National Research Council Canada; Ralph Droms, longtime network scientist, researcher, architect and engineer; Esther Dyson, entrepreneur, former journalist and founding chair at ICANN; David Ellis, Ph.D., course director of the department of communication studies at York University inToronto; Charlie Firestone, executive director of the Aspen Institute’s communications and society program; Bob Frankston, internet pioneer and software innovator; Oscar Gandy, professor emeritus of communication at the University of Pennsylvania; Mark Glaser, publisher and founder of MediaShift; Jonathan Grudin, principal researcher at Microsoft; Seth Finkelstein, consulting programmer and EFF Pioneer Award winner; Jim Hendler, co-originator of the Semantic Web and professor of computing sciences at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Dewayne Hendricks, CEO of Tetherless Access; Perry Hewitt, vice president of marketing and digital strategy at ITHAKA; Jason Hong, associate professor at the Human Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University; Gus Hosein, executive director of Privacy International; Christian H. Huitema, past president of the Internet Architecture Board; Larry Irving, president CEO of the Irving Group and co-founder of the Mobile Alliance for Global Good; Shel Israel, CEO of the Transformation Group; Jeff Jarvis, a professor at the City University of New York’s Graduate School of Journalism; John Klensin, Internet Hall of Fame member, longtime Internet Engineering Task Force and Internet Society leader, and an innovator of the Domain Name System (DNS) administration; Bart Knijnenburg, researcher on decision-making and recommender systems at Clemson University; Gary L. Kreps, distinguished professor and director of the Center for Health and Risk Communication at George Mason University; Leora Lawton, executive director of the Berkeley Population Center at the University of California, Berkeley; Jon Lebkowsky, CEO of Polycot Associates; Peter Levine, professor and associate dean for research at Tufts University’s Tisch College of Civic Life; Mike Liebhold, senior researcher and distinguished fellow at the Institute for the Future; John Markoff, fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University and longtime technology writer at The New York Times; Craig J. Mathias, principal for the Farpoint Group; Giacomo Mazzone, head of institutional relations at the European Broadcasting Union; Robert Metcalfe, co-inventor of Ethernet, founder of 3Com and professor of innovation at the University of Texas at Austin; Jerry Michalski, founder of the Relationship Economy eXpedition (REX); Riel Miller, team leader in futures literacy at UNESCO; Mario Morino, chair of the Morino Institute and co-founder of Venture Philanthropy Partners; Gina Neff, professor at the Oxford Internet Institute; Lisa Nielsen, director of digital learning at the New York City Department of Education; Ian Peter, internet pioneer and advocate and co-founder of the Association for Progressive Communications; Justin Reich, executive director of the MIT Teaching Systems Lab; Larry Roberts, Internet Hall of Fame member and CEO, CFO and CTO at FSA Technologies Inc.; Michael Roberts, Internet Hall of Fame member and first president and CEO of ICANN; Michael Rogers, author and futurist at Practical Futurist; Larry Rosen, co-author of “The Distracted Mind: Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World”; Louis Rossetto, founder and former editor-in-chief of Wired magazine; Marc Rotenberg, executive director of EPIC; Eileen Rudden, co-founder and board chair of LearnLaunch; Douglas Rushkoff, writer, documentarian, and lecturer who focuses on human autonomy in a digital age; Anthony Rutkowski, internet pioneer and business leader; Paul Saffo, longtime Silicon-Valley-based technology forecaster; David Sarokin, author of “Missed Information: Better Information for Building a Wealthier, More Sustainable Future”; Jan Schaffer, executive director at J-Lab; Henning Schulzrinne, Internet Hall of Fame member and professor at Columbia University; Evan Selinger, professor of philosophy at Rochester Institute of Technology; Brad Templeton, chair emeritus for the Electronic Frontier Foundation; Sherry Turkle, MIT professor and author of “Alone Together”; Joseph Turow, professor of communication at the University of Pennsylvania; Stuart A. Umpleby, professor emeritus at George Washington University; Hal Varian, chief economist for Google; Amy Webb, futurist, professor and founder of the Future Today Institute; David Weinberger, senior researcher at Harvard University’s Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society; Daniel Weitzner, principle research scientist and founding director of MIT’s Internet Policy Research Initiative; Yvette Wohn, director of the Social Interaction Lab at the New Jersey Institute of Technology and expert on human-computer interaction; Ethan Zuckerman, director of the Center for Civic Media at MIT.